The participle form of causative verbs in Dangme

Regina Oforiwah Caesar

Abstract



 Abstract

This paper presents a descriptive analysis of verbs with the participle marking affixes in expressing causatives in Dangme, a language that belongs to the Kwa group of the Niger-Congo family of languages.  The paper examines the syntax and the semantic perspectives of the participialized form of causative verbs in the Role and Reference Grammar’s (RRG) theory in Dangme. The participle is an affix which expresses the completion at the final stage of a process. As a verbal affix, it can take objects and have tense or aspect in languages. They also indicate active agency (actor) and an agency receiving an action (sufferer). Generally affixes that express participial are in two forms: the finite and non-finite categories. Unlike Akan and other languages that have both forms, Dangme has just the non-finite category which of two forms. The two non-finite forms of the verb in Dangme are the participle and the gerund. The gerund affix {-mi} denotes a new word class from verbs in Dangme, (noun). The participle on the other hand has adjective-like characteristics and it is expressed mostly with the front vowels of Dangme: /i, e, ԑ/. It is to be noted that to form the participle in Dangme, two processes are required. Firstly, the verb stem is reduplicated either partially or totally depending on the shape of the verb stem. The reduplicant then selects a front vowel of the same tongue height of the vowel of the verb stem. The words formed imply a process of change caused by a causer. For the purpose of this paper, my focus is on the participial affix used in expressing causative meaning in Dangme.

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Agyekum, K. 2004. Causativity in Akan. Studies in the Languages of the

Volta Basin II. Proceedings of the Annual Colloquium of the Legon Trondheim Linguistics Project. Accra: Combert Impressions Limited. pp. 217-227.

Ameka, F. & Dakubu, K. E. M. 2008. Aspect and modality in kwa languages.

Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Boadi, L. A. 2006. Three Major Syntactic Structures in Akan. Accra. Black Mask Limited. 2010. Akan noun phrase, its structure and meaning. Accra: Black Mash Limited.

Caesar, R. O. 2013. Lexical and Periphrastic Causatives in Dangme. Ph.D Thesis, University of Education, Winneba.

Dakubu, K.M.E. 1966. Ga, Adangme and Ewe (Lomé) with English gloss. Accra: Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana.

De Busser, R. 2010. Beyond the causative continuum. Research Centre for Linguistic Typology (Manuscript).

Dixon, R. M. W. & Aikhenvald, A. Y. 2000. Changing valency. Case study in transitivity. (eds.) Dixon, R. M. W. & Aikhenvald, A. Y. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-29.

Dixon, R.M.W. 2000. A typology of causatives: form, syntax and meaning. In Dixon & Aikhenvaid (eds) Word: A Cross-Linguistic Typology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 30-83.

Dixon, R.M.W. and Aikhenvald, A.Y. 1997. A typology of argument-determined constructions of essays on language function and language type edited by J. Bybee, J. Haiman and S. Thompson. pp. 71-113. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dryer, M. S. 2005. Clause types. In Clause Structure, Language Typology and Syntactic Description. edited by Timothy Shopen. Vol. 1, p. 728. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Foley, W. A. & Van Valin, R.. D. (1984). Functional syntax and universal grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jolly, J. 1991. Prepositional analysis within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar. New York: Lang.

Lyons, J. 1977. Semantic. Vol. 2. New York: Port Chester Melbourn Sydney. Cambridge University Press.

Rice, K. 2000. Voice and valency in the Athabaskan family. In Changing Valency. Dixon, R.M.W. and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shibatani, M. 1976. The grammar of causative constructions. A conspectus. syntax and semantics. In the Grammar of Causative Constructions, (ed.) M. Shibatani. New York: Academic Press. Vol. 6:1–40.

Shibatani, M. & Pardeshi, P. 2000. The causative continuum. The English Biennial Rice University Symposium on Linguistics.

Song, G., & Wolff, P. 2003. Linking perceptual properties to the linguistic expression of causation. In M. Achard & S. Kemmer (ed.) Language, Culture and Mind. CSLI Publications. pp. 1-13.

VanValin, R. D. Jr. 2001c. A brief overview of Role and Reference Grammar. available on RRG web site.

Van Valin, R. D., Jr. & Foley, William A. 1980. Role and Reference Grammar. In Moravcsik and Wirth, (eds.), 329-52.htt://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php./p




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5750/bjll.v9i0.1174

www.bjll.org