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Multidimensional quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists: A Japanese nation-wide survey

Yoshiko Tominaga, Tohru Aomori, Tomohisa Hayakawa, Minae Isawa, Mayumi Mochizuki

Abstract


Rationale, Aims and Objectives: Patient-centred pharmaceutical care (PC) has become increasingly important at community pharmacies, although few studies have comprehensively evaluated the necessary elements in PC. Our main objective was to determine the extent of PC practice in the Japanese community pharmacy setting and to discuss the results from domestic and international perspectives using the internationally validated Behavioral Pharmaceutical Care Scale (BPCS). 

Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, nationwide Internet-based survey of community pharmacists. A 32-item questionnaire was prepared based on one used in Europe and scored in the ranges of either of 0-5 or 1-5 on each item as well as of 15-160 in total. Survey invitations were delivered to 2,600 pharmacies via postal mail or institutional e-mail.

Results: A total of 1,332 pharmacists responded. The mean total BPCS score was 98.7/160 (61.7%). While scores related to documentation, patient assessment and patient record screening were generally high, others related to desired therapeutic objectives and sharing patients’ progress with general practitioners were generally low. In multivariate linear regression analysis, health counselling, in-pharmacy computerization, cooperation with other healthcare professionals and claiming reimbursement were positively correlated and age negatively associated with the BPCS score.

Conclusion: The general level of PC practice by Japanese community pharmacists was relatively high, since their BPCS scores exceeded the ranges reported in European surveys. The basic reason is likely that remuneration linked to medication review is well established. Areas for improvement, such as paying more attention to therapeutic goals from an individualized quality-of-life standpoint and cooperating with other medical professionals, were identified.

Keywords


Behavioral Pharmaceutical Care Scale, community pharmacist, community pharmacy, Japan, patient-centered care, person-centered healthcare, pharmaceutical care

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5750/ejpch.v6i3.1508

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