A Parallel Assessment of Non-Gambling-Based and Gambling-Based Sponsorships of Sports Properties

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Michael McCall
Sam Fullerton
Ronald Dick


The current study examines the congruence, or lack thereof, of the relationships as identified in two earlier studies: one that addressed sports-based sponsorship and the other that focused on sports gambling. Study one identified a general model of the sports sponsorship environment based upon an array of benefits derived by four categories of beneficiaries that are directly impacted by the sponsorship of a sports entity (i.e., team, athlete, sports venue, and so on). The four categories of beneficiaries were identified as sponsors, sports, spectators, and society-at-large. The original model further examined the interactions among the four categories of beneficiaries while delineating 12 directional linkages and 159 potential benefits. The second study focused on the results emanating from a recent Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) ruling that declared the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) to be unconstitutional. That ruling allowed American gambling organizations to become more involved in sports betting, and consequently, they have become engaged in the sponsorship of a variety of sports entities. A similar analysis to the one used in traditional sports sponsorship documented 14 groups of beneficiaries and 201 benefits. The current study, which delineated 215 benefits, extends the previous research by integrating these complementary streams within an overarching sponsorship model. Results demonstrate that the sponsorship environment is more complex than previous research has shown, and several contributions that are both theoretical and managerial in scope are articulated.

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Author Biographies

Michael McCall, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, United States

Michael McCall is a Professor and Hilton Hotels Fellow in Hospitality Management at Michigan State University. He received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from Arizona State University and has held prior academic appointments at Cornell University and Ithaca College. His primary research interests are in customer loyalty, gaming/ sports marketing, and statistical approaches to measuring customer value.

Ronald Dick, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Dr. Ronald Dick is an Associate Professor of Sport Marketing at Duquesne University in the School of Business and previously was an Assistant Professor in Sport Management at James Madison University and an Associate Professor at the University of New Haven.  He has 15 years experience in the NBA with the Philadelphia 76ers and New Jersey Nets, then was the Director of Athletics at Marian College (WI) and Assistant Athletic Director for Ticket Operations at the University of Houston.